Tim Mackie is a Creative writer and director for The Bible Project and an adjunct professor of Old Testament at Western Seminary and host of Exploring My Strange Bible Podcast.
Recent episodes featuring Tim Mackie
Solomon the Cynic & the Job You Never Knew - Wisdom E6
Episode of
The Bible Project
In part 1 (0-24:15), Tim and Jon discuss the book of Ecclesiastes. This book can most easily be described as a portrait of “foolish Solomon,” who looks back at his accomplishments as failure and hevel. Tim points out that the start of the book begins by creating a “Solomon-like” persona. Ecclesiastes 1:1 “The words of the preacher son of David, king in Jerusalem...” (NASB, ESV, KJV) “The words of the teacher, son of David, king in Jerusalem...” (NIV, NRSV) However, there is a translation problem: This word does not mean “teacher” in the original Hebrew. Hebrew noun (קהלת (qoheleth, from the verb qahal (קהל ,(meaning “to assemble, convene.” The Hebrew word is Qoheleth—the one who holds or convenes an assembly, i.e. the “leader of the assembly” (Heb. qahal). So this word is best understood as an assembler or convener. The word is also used in 1 Kings 8:1, “Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel and all the heads of the tribes... to bring up the ark of the covenant of the Lord from the city of David, which is Zion. All the men of Israel assembled themselves to King Solomon at the feast.” Tim’s point is that there are multiple leaders who assemble or convene Israel in the Bible. Who holds assemblies in Israel’s story? • Moses (Exod 35:1; Lev 8:1-3) • David (1 Chron 13:5; 15:3; 28:1) • Solomon (1 Kings 8:1; 2 Chron 5:2-3) • Rehoboam (Solomon’s son, 1 Kings 12:21; 2 Chron 11:1) • Asa (2 Chron 15:9-10) • Jehoshaphat (2 Chron 20:3-5) • Hezekiah (2 Chron 30:12-13) Tim cites scholar Jennie Barbour for additional clarification: “The name Qoheleth ‘the one who convenes the assembly’ is a label with royal associations— after Moses, only kings summon all-Israelite assemblies, and those associations take in more kings than just Solomon. Qoheleth’s name casts him as a royal archetype, not an ‘everyman’ so much as an ‘everyking.’” (Jenny Barbour, The Story of Israel in the Book of Qoheleth, p. 25-26) Any generation of Jerusalem’s kings could be called “son of David,” and the author tips his hat in Ecclesiastes 2:9, “I increased more than all who preceded me in Jerusalem.” (And the only person who reigned before him in Jerusalem was his father David.) Tim explains that the jaded king-author of Ecclesiastes brings a realism in light of Genesis 3, framing the world as life “under the sun,” or life outside of Eden. This king is realizing the curse of Genesis 3: painful toil and dust to dust. Tim further points out that Ecclesiastes offers a Solomon-like profile of the wealthy sons of David, who discovered that riches, honor, power, and women do not bring the life of Eden. Further, while many people assume that the descriptions solely describe the life of Solomon, Tim points out that they also map very closely onto the life of Hezekiah. Take a look at these two passages: Ecclesiastes 2:4-8 I made great my works: I built houses for myself, I planted vineyards for myself; I made gardens and parks for myself and I planted in them all kinds of fruit trees; I made ponds of water for myself from which to irrigate a forest of growing trees. I bought male and female slaves and I had homeborn slaves. Also I possessed flocks and herds more abundant than all who preceded me in Jerusalem. Also, I collected for myself silver and gold and the treasure of kings and provinces. I provided for myself male and female singers and the pleasures of men—many concubines. Hezekiah in 2 Chronicles 32:27-30 Now Hezekiah had immense riches and honor; and he made for himself treasuries for silver, gold, precious stones, spices, shields and all kinds of valuable articles, collection-houses also for the produce of grain, wine and oil, pens for all kinds of cattle and sheepfolds for the flocks. He made cities for himself and acquired flocks and herds in abundance, for God had given him very great wealth. It was Hezekiah who stopped the upper outlet of the waters of Gihon and directed them to the west side of the city of David. And Hezekiah prospered in all his works. Tim cites Jennie Barbour again: “In all of these ways [building projects, riches, royal treasuries, pools, singers] the royal boast in Eccles. 2:4-10 displays a king’s achievements in terms that show an author of the Second Temple period reading an interpreting the earlier stories of Israel’s kings...the writer has pulled together texts and motifs from Israel’s histories...to show that the paradigm king, Solomon, set the mould that was continually replicated through the rest of Israel’s monarchy down to the exile.” (Jennie Barbour, The Story of Israel in the Book of Qoheleth, 23-24) In part 2 (24:15- 31:45), Jon asks how the narrative frame of Ecclesiastes being about all of Israel’s kings—not just about Solomon—affects someone’s reading? Tim says he thinks it makes the story more universal. All rulers and all humans struggle with the same things that Solomon and other rulers have felt throughout history. In part 3 (31:45-50:15), Tim and Jon turn their attention to the book of Job. Tim notes that he’s recently learned of some new and fascinating layers to the book. Tim notes that Job is positioned as a new type of Adam. He actually is portrayed as being righteous and upright. So he’s an ideal wise person who has prospered during his life. Tim focuses on the beginning and end of the book. Specifically the ending of the book, Tim finds new insights to ponder. Tim notes that Job is portrayed as the righteous sufferer. Everything that has happened to him is unfair. Then Tim dives into Job 42:7-10: “And it came about after Yahweh had spoken these words to Job, and Yahweh said to Eliphaz the Temanite, “My anger is kindled against you and against your two friends, because you have not spoken of Me what is right as My servant Job has. “And now, take for yourselves seven bulls and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves, and My servant Job will pray for you. For I will lift up his face so that I may not commit an outrage with you, because you have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has.” So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went and they did as Yahweh told them; and the Lord lifted the face of Job. And Yahweh restored the fortunes of Job while he prayed on behalf of his companions, and Yahweh added to everything that belonged to Job, two-fold.” The operative phrase Tim focuses on is “while he prayed.” Tim says this is a better translation of the original Hebrew phrase. Tim notes that it’s as if Job’s righteous suffering has uniquely positioned him to intercede on behalf of his friends to God. In part 4, (50:15-60:00) Tim shares a few quotes from scholar David Clines regarding Job’s intercession in 42:10. “[W]e must remember that Job has not yet been restored when the friends bring their request to him for his prayer. He is presumably still on the ash-heap. He has no inkling that Yahweh intends to reverse his fortunes. All he knows is that he is still suffering at Yahweh’s hand, and, if it is difficult for the friends to acknowledge the divine judgment against them, it must be no less difficult for Job to accept this second-hand instruction to offer prayer for people he must be totally disenchanted with; he certainly owes them nothing... Is this yet another ‘test’ that Job must undergo before he is restored? “The wording of Job 42:10 makes it seem as if Job’s restoration is dependent on his prayer on their behalf, as if his last trial of all will be to take his stand on the side of his ‘torturer- comforters.’ It is true that this prayer is the first selfless act that Job has performed since his misfortunes overtook him—not that we much begrudge him the self-centeredness that has dominated his speech throughout the book. Perhaps his renewed orientation to the needs of others is the first sign that he has abandoned his inward-looking mourning and is ready to accept consolation. In any case, in the very act of offering his prayer on the friends’ behalf his own restoration is said to take effect: the Hebrew says, “Yahweh restored the fortunes of Job while he was praying for his friends” (not, as most versions, “when (or after) he had prayed for his friends”).” David J. A. Clines, Job 38–42, vol. 18B, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2011), 1235. Tim notes that the point of the story of Job is that he suffers unfairly, but the righteous sufferer is someone that God elevates to a place of authority, someone who God listens to when they intercede for others. In part 5 (60:00-end), Tim and Jon briefly recap the series as a whole. Thank you to all our supporters! Send us your questions for our Wisdom Q+R! You can email your audio question to info@jointhebibleproject.com. Show Produced by: Dan Gummel, Tim Mackie Show music: Defender Instrumental by Tents Sunshine by Seneca B Surf Report by Cloudchord Soul Food Horns levitating by intention_ In Your Heart by Distant.Io Show Resources: Jennie Barbour, The Story of Israel in the Book of Qoheleth. David J. A. Clines, Job 38–42, vol. 18B, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2011). The Bible Project video: How to Read the Wisdom Books of the Bible (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJgt1vRkPbI) Powered and distributed by Simplecast.
Destined for Glory - Feat. Dr. Haley Jacob
Episode of
The Bible Project
Welcome to this special episode of The Bible Project podcast! In this episode, Tim and Jon sit down with theologian and scholar Dr. Haley Goranson Jacob and discuss her book, Conformed to the Image of His Son: Reconsidering Paul's Theology of Glory in Romans. Haley is an assistant professor of Theology at Whitworth University in Spokane, Washington. The guys and Haley discuss different lenses used to understand Paul’s theology around the word “glory” and different ideas of what it means to become Christlike. Thank you to all of our supporters! Show Resources: Haley's book: https://www.ivpress.com/conformed-to-the-image-of-his-son Haley’s bio: https://www.whitworth.edu/cms/academics/theology/newsletter/profiles/haley-goranson/ Show Produced by: Dan Gummel Show Music: Defender Instrumental, Tents Powered and distributed by Simplecast
Song of Songs: Semi-Erotic Love Poetry - Wisdom E5
Episode of
The Bible Project
In part 1(0-15:50), the guys discuss the first major question about this book: Is Song of Songs truly wisdom literature? Tim notes that there are multiple levels of interpretation. The most obvious one views Song of Songs as semi-erotic love poetry. While this isn’t wrong, Tim notes that a deeper reading can metaphorically map the man and woman’s sexual love for one another onto the human pursuit and quest for wisdom. Jon says that this view of interpreting Song of Songs is new to him. The reason, Tim notes, is because modern biblical scholarship often tends to see only what it wants to see. Tim adds that multiple historical scholars note the double and triple meanings throughout the book. In part 2 (15:50-33:30), the guys dive into the book. Tim outlines a few basic facts about the book:  • The poems go back and forth between a man and woman: The man is called “king” (1:4, 12) and “shepherd” (1:7). • The name “Solomon” is never marked as a speaker, and the main question is whether the lover (“my beloved”), who is called “king” and “shepherd,” is Solomon or a distinct figure. Notice the word “beloved” (dod, דוד), spelled with the same letters as “David” (דוד), who was both a king and shepherd (whereas Solomon was only a king). • The woman is called “whom I love” and “the Shulamite” (which is the feminine of Solomon’s name. It would be similar in English to “Daniel” and “Danielle”). Tim cites Roland Murphy: “On one level, the [Song of Songs] is a collection of love songs. However, as edited [to be part of the Hebrew Bible], do these poems have a wisdom-character on another level of understanding? First, there is the fact that ancient Jewish tradition...attributed this work to Solomon (Song 1:1)... it was mean to be read as a work in the Solomonic wisdom tradition… [T]here is an affinity between wisdom and eros in the wisdom literature. The quest for wisdom is a quest for the beloved…. The language and imagery used to describe the pursuit of Lady Wisdom [in Proverbs 1-9] are drawn from the experience of love. The Song of Songs speaks of love between a man and a woman...it is by that very fact open to a wisdom interpretation. Wisdom is to be “found” (Prov 3:13; 8:17, 35), just as one “finds” a good wife (Prov 18:22; 31:10).... [Both] Wisdom and a wife are called “favor from the Lord” (Prov 8:35 and 18:22). The sage advises the youth to “obtain Wisdom,” to love and embrace her (Prov 4:6-8). The youth is to say, “Wisdom, you are my sister” (Prov 7:4), just as the beloved in the Song of Songs is called “my sister (Song 4:9-5:1)... It is precisely the link between eros and wisdom that opens the Song of Songs to another level of understanding. While it is not ‘wisdom literature,’ its echoes reach beyond human sexual love to remind one of the love of Lady Wisdom…” (Roland Murphy, The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature, pp. 106-107.) In part 3 (33:30-47:00), Jon notes with this interpretation that the female character is the “divine” character. In most popular interpretations, Solomon is closer to the Christ figure, and the woman is as the Church—making the male the “divine” character. Tim then dives into the literary design of the book. The Song is designed as a symmetry (see the work of Cheryl Exum and William Shea). The Literary Macrostructure of Song of Songs: 1:2-2:7 Mutual Love
B. 2:8-17 Coming and Going C. 3:1-5 Dream 1: Lost and Found D. 3:6-11 Praise of Groom 1
E. 4:1-7 Praise of Bride 1
F. 4:8-15 Praise of Bride 2 G. 4:16 Invitation by Bride
G. Acceptance and Invitation by Groom and Divine Approbation C. 5:2-8 Dream 2: Found and Lost D. 5:9-6:3 Praise of Groom 2 E. 6:4-12 Praise of Bride 3 F. 7:1 Praise of Bride 4 B. 7:11-8:2 Going and Coming
8:3-14 Mutual Love (Chart by Richard M. Davidson) Tim points out that the first half explores the engagement, passion, and constant desire and pursuit of the lovers, though their embrace is cut short multiple times. The second half mirrors the first, but this time it depicts the royal wedding of Solomon and his Solomon-ess bride. The beloved is described in precisely the language of Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 1-9, the God-given wife in Proverbs 5, and the woman of valor in Proverbs 31 (see Claudia Camp, Wisdom and the Feminine in the Book of Proverbs). Verses like this can show how the corresponding language maps onto each other. Lady Wisdom in Proverbs

Proverbs 4:5-9
“Acquire wisdom! Acquire understanding!
Do not forget nor turn away from the words of my mouth.
Do not forsake her, and she will guard you;
Love her, and she will watch over you.
The beginning of wisdom is: Acquire wisdom;
And with all your acquiring, get understanding.
Prize her, and she will exalt you;
She will honor you if you embrace her.
She will place on your head a garland of grace;
She will present you with a crown of beauty.”
 The Beloved in Song of Songs Song 2:3-4, 6
“Like an apple tree among the trees of the forest,
So is my beloved among the young men.
In his shade I took great delight and sat down,
And his fruit was sweet to my taste.
He has brought me to his banquet hall,
And his banner over me is love….
Let his left hand be under my head
And his right hand embrace me.” Song 3:11
“Go forth, O daughters of Zion,
And gaze on King Solomon with the crown
With which his mother has crowned him
On the day of his wedding,
And on the day of his gladness of heart.” Tim notes that conversely, the beloved is also described in the language of the wayward woman in Proverbs 1-9. 
Wayward woman of Proverbs 1-9 
Proverbs 5:3 “For the lips of the strange woman drip with honey (נפת תטפנה שפתי זרה), and her mouth (חך) is smoother than oil.” 
Proverbs 7:6, 8
“The strange woman... the foreign woman whose words are smooth… A man passes through the street (שוק), and takes the way (דרך) to her house. 
Proverbs 7:13, 15, 17
“She grabs him and kisses him… ‘Therefore I have come out to meet you, to seek your presence earnestly, and I have found you…. I have sprinkled my bed with myrrh, aloe, and cinnamon.’” Compare those verses with the beloved in Song of Songs. 
Song 4:11 “O bride, your lips drip with honey (נפת תטפנה שפתותיך), honey and fat are under your tongue…”
 Song 3:2
“I arose and went around in the city, in the streets and squares, I sought the one my being loves…”
 Songs 3:1, 4
“On my bed at night, I sought the one my being loves, I sought him but could not find him… No sooner did I pass by them, then I found the one my being loves, and grabbed him and I did not let go….” Songs 1:16 “Behold, your beauty my companion...behold your beauty my beloved, so lovely, indeed our couch is luxuriant.” What is the point? It’s as if the beloved represented the healing of the wayward woman into one ultimate lover. The ideal Solomon is converted from a lover of many women into a lover of one, reversing the fall of Adam and Eve, Yahweh and Israel, Solomon and his many wives. Lady Wisdom (who we met in Proverbs) is finally embraced by the son of David. She is constantly searching for her lover (as Lady Wisdom searches in Prov. 1-9). In part 4 (47:00-52:30), Jon comments that to him, the human sexual drive is confusing, especially when viewed in a Christian lens. How do you map a biological longing for sex onto a book like Song of Songs? 
Tim says that the desire is sexual, but it’s also more than sexual. It’s a desire to know and be known., to become one with something and someone. It’s a desire for unity. Humanity’s desire for sex, Tim compares, is analogous to our desire for wisdom and unity. In part 5 (52:30-end), Tim cites scholar Peter Leithart as a helpful resource to learn more about Song of Songs. Tim closes the episode with a quote from scholar Ellen Davis: 
“Loss of intimacy is exactly what happened in Eden. Eden was the place where God was most intimate with humanity. Witness God “taking a walk in the garden in the breezy part of the day” (Gen. 3:8), obviously expecting to have the humans for company, and calling out—“Where are you?”—when they do not appear. There is good reason to imagine that God intended to impart wisdom to humanity on those walks, little by little. But when Eve and Adam disregarded God and tried the direct route to “knowledge of good and evil,” the immediate result was not literal death. Rather, it was distrust breaking into the relationship between God and humanity. It was blame erupting between man and woman (Gen. 3:12) and the onset of a long-term imbalance of power between them (Gen. 3:16). It was a curse on the fertile soil and enmity between the woman’s seed and the snake’s (Gen. 3:15, 17).... The exile from Eden represents the loss of intimacy in three primary spheres of relationship: between God and humanity, between woman and man, and between human and nonhuman creation. Correspondingly, the Song uses language to evoke a vision of healing in all three areas. More accurately, it reuses language from other parts of Scripture; verbal echoes explicitly connect the garden of the lovers with the two earlier gardens, that of Eden and of Israel’s temple.” (Ellen Davis, “Reading the Song of Songs Iconographically,” pg. 179) Thank you to all our supporters! Show Resources:  • Peter Leithart Podcasts on Song of Songs (https://www.theopolispodcast.com/episodes) • Ellen Davis, “Reading the Song of Songs Iconographically” • Claudia Camp, Wisdom and the Feminine in the Book of Proverbs • Cheryl Exum, Song of Songs: A Commentary • Roland Murphy, The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature Show Music:  • Defender Instrumental by Tents • Identity by B-Side • albatros by plusma • faces by knowmadic • Aerocity by Cold Weather Kids • Some music brought to you by the generous folks at chillhop music. Chillhop.com Show Produced by: Dan Gummel, Jon Collins Powered and distributed by Simplecast.
Proverbs: Lady Wisdom & Lady Folly - Wisdom E4
Episode of
The Bible Project
In part 1 (start-17:45), the guys briefly recap the series so far. Jon summarizes by saying that the overarching theme is the human calling to rule, as outlined in the Genesis and garden of Eden narrative. The question is, will humans rule wisely or foolishly? In part 2 (17:45-27:00), Tim and Jon discuss how Proverbs lays out two paths, which are the same two paths outlined in Genesis. A person can either choose to live wisely, depicted as listening to “Lady Wisdom,” or a person can choose to live foolishly, depicted as listening to “Lady Folly.” Early in Proverbs, the “Solomon” narrator warns the “seed of David” about how to live in the fear of Yahweh and discover true wisdom. The wise and righteous man embraces Lady Wisdom (Proverbs 1, 3, 8, 9). The goal of finding “a woman of valor” (Prov. 5, 31) avoids the wicked and violent man, avoids Lady Folly (Prov. 9), and avoids the “wayward woman” (characterized as an adulteress). Tim notes that there are four speeches each that talk about Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly, for a total of eight speeches. The components of these speeches are designed to mirror each other. In part 3 (27:00-39:00), Tim outlines Proverbs 9, which is an example of the two women mirroring each other. Proverbs 9:1-6 "Wisdom has built her house, She has hewn out her seven pillars; She has prepared her food, she has mixed her wine; She has also set her table; She has sent out her maidens, she calls From the tops of the high places of the city: ‘Whoever is naive, let him turn in here!’ To him who lacks understanding she says, ‘Come, eat of my bread And drink of the wine I have mixed. ‘Forsake your folly and live, And proceed in the way of understanding.’” Proverbs 9:13-18 “The woman of folly is boisterous, She is naive and knows nothing. She sits at the doorway of her house, On a seat by the high places of the city, Calling to those who pass by, Who are making their paths straight: ‘Whoever is naive, let him turn in here,’ And to him who lacks understanding she says, ‘Stolen water is sweet; And bread eaten in secret is pleasant.’ But he does not know that the dead are there, That her guests are in the depths of Sheol.” Tim notes that accepting divine wisdom is the way to discover the blessings of Eden. Consider Proverbs 3: Proverbs 3:1-8, 13-18 “My son, do not forget my teaching, But let your heart keep my commandments; For length of days and years of life And peace they will add to you. Do not let kindness and truth leave you; Bind them around your neck, Write them on the tablet of your heart. So you will find favor and good repute In the sight of God and man. Trust in the Lord with all your heart And do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge Him, And He will make your paths straight. Do not be wise in your own eyes; Fear the Lord and turn away from ra’. It will be healing to your body And refreshment to your bones.” “How blessed is the man who finds wisdom And the man who gains understanding. For her profit is better than the profit of silver And her gain better than fine gold. She is more precious than jewels; And nothing you desire compares with her. Long life is in her right hand; In her left hand are riches and honor. Her ways are pleasant ways And all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to those who take hold of her, And happy are all who hold her fast." Tim cites Proverbs 3 because he notes that the wise woman metaphorically becomes the tree of life. This maps onto the Garden of Eden narrative. Tim says that the book of Proverbs is designed to be a reflection on Genesis 1-3. In part 4 (39:00-end), Tim outlines Proverbs 31. Tim notes that the woman outlined here could be said to be a sort of real-life version of the metaphoric “Lady Wisdom” depicted earlier in the book. Tim notes that while Proverbs views the pursuit of wisdom from a male perspective of choosing between two metaphorical women, the next book, Song of Songs, flips it, and views the pursuit of wisdom from a female perspective. Thank you to all our supporters! Send us your questions for our upcoming Q+R on the Wisdom books in the Bible! Please include an audio recording of your question (about 20 seconds or so) and make sure to include your name and where you're from. Email questions with attached audio files to info@jointhebibleproject.com Show Resources: www.thebibleproject.com Show Music: • Defender Instrumental by Tents • Hideout by Tesk • Sandalwood by J. Roosevelt • Mind Your Time by Me.So Some music brought you by the generosity of Chillhop Music. Show Produced by: Dan Gummel, Jon Collins Powered and distributed by Simplecast.
Solomon: The Wisest of the Fools - Wisdom E3
Episode of
The Bible Project
Welcome to our third episode discussing the theme of Wisdom in the bible. In this episode, Tim and Jon zoom in on the character Solomon. Was Solomon really the wisest person who ever lived? In part 1 (0-8:30), Tim and Jon quickly recap the conversation so far. Tim explains how the English word “help” is inadequate when used to describe Eve’s or woman’s role in relationship to Adam. Instead of an unnecessary addition, it’s more of an essential completion, even a “saving” role that the woman fills. Tim also explains that the tree of the knowledge of good and evil isn’t the perfect translation in the Hebrew. More accurately, it’s “the knowledge of the tree of good and bad.” In part 2 (8:30-19:20), Tim begins to trace the human story after Adam and Eve, through Abraham and arriving at Solomon. Tim says that God promises to restore the blessing of Eden to all humanity through the family of Abraham. Here is God’s promise to Abraham: Genesis 12:1-3 “And I will make of you a great nation,
and I will bless you,
and make your name great,
so that you will be a blessing.
I will bless those who bless you,
and him who curses you I will curse;
and in you will be blessed all the families of the earth.” Genesis 12:7 “The Lord appeared to Abram and said, ‘To your seed I will give this land.’ So he built an altar there to the Lord who had appeared to him.” 
In Genesis 16, God promises Abraham and Sarah seed and land to be a blessing to the nations. But when they’re unable to have a child, they turn to their own wisdom and power. This is a clear design pattern from the fall narrative of Genesis 3. See below the breakdown of this passage and it’s reflection of the the Eden story. Genesis 16:1-2 tells us, “Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. But she had an Egyptian slave named Hagar.” So Sarai says to Abram, “Go now into my female servant, perhaps I will be built up from her.” (This language of being “built” from Hagar suspiciously reminds us of Genesis 2:22, “and Yahweh God built the side which he took from the human into a woman, and he brought her to the man.”) 
Genesis 16:2b “…and Abram listened to the voice of Sarai.” (In Genesis 3:17, God says to Adam, “Because you listened to the voice of your wife…”) 
Genesis 16:3-4 “Sarai, the wife of Abram, took Hagar the Egyptian her female slave… and she gave her to Abram her husband as a wife (Gen. 3:6, “and she gave also to her husband with her”). And he went into her and she became pregnant and she saw that (ותרא כי) she was pregnant, and her mistress became less in her eyes” (Gen. 3:6, “When the woman saw that [ותרא] the tree was good…”). 
Genesis 16:6 “And Abram said to Sarai, ‘Look, your female slave is in your hand. Do to her what is good in your eyes (טוב בעיניך).’ (Gen. 3:6, “When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes…”). 
Genesis 16:6b-7 “So Sarah oppressed her, and Hagar fled from before her. And the angel of Yahweh found her by a spring of waters in the wilderness.” (Gen. 3:24, “So [God] drove the man out….”) In Genesis 22, when God provides a son from Sarah, God demands his life. God does not take lightly to the oppression of Egyptian slaves (the entire Exodus slavery is an inverted consequence for this sin). Also because of this sin, Ishmael is cast out from Abraham’s family, which grieves God, so he demands that Abraham give Isaac back to him. God is looking for people who will trust Yahweh’s word and command over their own wisdom, that will reverse the folly and fear of Adam and Eve. The first character to demonstrate this Abraham in Genesis 22:4-6: “And Abraham lifted his eyes (עיניו) and he saw (וירא)… and he took (ויקח) in his hand the fire and the knife/eater(מאכלת), and the two of them (שניהם) walked on together (יחדו).” This releases the blessing of Eden through Abraham’s fear of Yahweh out into the nations. 
Genesis 22:15-18
"Then the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, and said, “By Myself I have sworn, declares the Lord, because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son, indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies. In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have listened My voice.” The point is this: When humans don’t live by their own wisdom regarding good and bad, but instead trust God’s wisdom and obey his commands (the fear of the Lord), it leads to blessing and life. This is true wisdom: to live in the fear of the Lord. In part 3 (19:20-36:45), Tim begins to outline the story of Solomon. Tim says Solomon is presented as a new Adam. He has an opportunity to rule the world, and he actually asks God to give him wisdom to rule. Solomon is a complex character, depicted as both a new, ideal Adam—but also as a failed, foolish Adam. In one narrative thread, he is depicted as a new Adam/Abraham, meeting God in a new high-place, and living by God’s wisdom/Torah. 1 Kings 3:3-15 “Now Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of his father David... The king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there, for that was the great high place; Solomon offered a thousand burnt offerings on that altar. In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream at night; and God said, ‘Ask what you wish me to give you.’ “Then Solomon said, ‘You have shown great covenant love to Your servant David my father...You have given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day. Now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king in place of my father David, yet I am but a little child; I do not know to go out or come in.
 “‘Your servant is in the midst of Your people which You have chosen, a great people who are too many to be numbered or counted. So give Your servant a heart that listens in order to govern Your people, in order to discern between good (Heb. tov) and bad (Heb. ra’). For who is able to govern this great people of Yours?’” 
“It was good (tov) in the eyes of the Lord that Solomon had asked this thing. God said to him, ‘Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life, nor have asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked for the life of your enemies, but have asked for yourself discernment to hear justice, behold, I have done according to your words. Behold, I have given you a heart of wisdom and discernment, so that there has been no one like you before you, nor shall one like you arise after you. I have also given you what you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there will not be any among the kings like you all your days. If you walk in My ways, keeping My statutes and commandments, as your father David walked, then I will prolong your days.’ Then Solomon awoke, and behold, it was a dream.” Tim shows how Solomon was blessed after he began to walk in the fear of the lord. 1 Kings 4:20-21, 25, 29-34
“Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand that is on the seashore in abundance; they were eating and drinking and rejoicing. Now Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the River to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt; they brought tribute and served Solomon all the days of his life….” 
“So Judah and Israel lived in safety, every man under his vine and his fig tree, from Dan even to Beersheba, all the days of Solomon.” 
“Now God gave Solomon wisdom and very great discernment and breadth of mind, like the sand that is on the seashore. Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the sons of the east and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Calcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was known in all the surrounding nations. He also spoke 3,000 proverbs, and his songs were 1,005. He spoke of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon even to the hyssop that grows on the wall; he spoke also of beasts and birds and creepers and fish (do you hear Genesis 1 in there?). Men came from all peoples to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all the kings of the earth who had heard of his wisdom." Solomon is portrayed as a new Adam, wisely ruling a garden with trees for everyone, fruitful and multiplying, boundaries expanded to Eden-like proportions. He knows the plants, beasts, birds, and creepers. He is more wise than “all the sons of the East” (link to the book of Job). He spoke thousands of proverbs (link to the book of Proverbs). He wrote over a thousand songs (link to Song of Songs).
 Tim’s point is that Solomon is beginning to to fulfill the original call of mankind to rule wisely. However, Solomon’s story has another side as well. In part 4 (36:45-52:50), Tim outlines the foolish side of Solomon’s life. Solomon enslaved people to help him build Jerusalem up. He imported and exported arms, chariots and horses to other countries. He had hundreds of wives and concubines. Solomon demonstrates wisdom but isn’t fully committed to following the laws of Yahweh. 1 Kings 5:13-17
“Now King Solomon levied forced laborers from all Israel; and the forced laborers numbered 30,000 men. He sent them to Lebanon, 10,000 a month in relays; they were in Lebanon a month and two months at home. And Adoniram was over the forced laborers. Now Solomon had 70,000 transporters, and 80,000 hewers of stone in the mountains, besides Solomon’s 3,300 chief deputies who were over the project and who ruled over the people who were doing the work. Then the king commanded, and they quarried great stones, costly stones, to lay the foundation of the house with cut stones.” 1 Kings 9:17, 19
“So Solomon rebuilt Gezer and the lower Beth-horon... and all the storage cities which Solomon had, even the cities for his chariots and the cities for his horsemen….” Solomon, for all his wisdom, implemented policies which directly violated the laws of the king as outlined in the Torah. Deuteronomy 17:15-20
“you shall surely set a king over you whom Yahweh your God chooses, one from among your countrymen you shall set as king over yourselves; you may not put a foreigner over yourselves who is not your countryman. Moreover, he shall not multiply horses for himself, nor shall he cause the people to return to Egypt to multiply horses, since Yahweh has said to you, ‘You shall never again return that way.’ He shall not multiply wives for himself, or else his heart will turn away; nor shall he greatly increase silver and gold for himself. 
“Now it shall come about when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, he shall write for himself a copy of this Torah on a scroll in the presence of the Levitical priests. It shall be with him and he shall read it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear Yahweh his God, by carefully observing all the words of this law and these statutes, that his heart may not be lifted up above his brothers and that he may not turn aside from the commandment, to the right or the left, so that he and his sons may continue long in his kingdom in the midst of Israel. Tim has found scholar Daniel Hays to be helpful here: “We as readers are given a tour of a fantastic, spectacular and opulent mansion, the house of Solomon. Everywhere we look we see wealth and abundance. However, without changing the inflection of his voice the tour guide also points out places where the façade has cracked, revealing a very different structure. Continuing with the standard speech which glorifies the building, the guide nonetheless makes frequent side comments (forced labor, store cities, horses from Egypt, foreign marriages) that make clear that his glowing praise for the structure is not really his honest opinion of the facility, and he wants us also to see the truth. Finally, at the end of the tour in chapters 11, he can restrain himself no more, and he tells us plainly that the building is basically a fraud, covered with a thin veneer of glitz and hoopla, and soon will collapse under its own weight. This is the manner in which the narrator of 1 Kings leads us on a tour of the House of Solomon.” (Daniel Hays, “Narrative Subtlety in 1 Kings 1-11: Does the narrative praise or bury Solomon?”) Tim points out that Solomon violates every rule that Israel’s king was supposed to follow. A Bible reader should ask why the narrator is giving us a dual portrait of Solomon? In the New Testament, Jesus says, “something greater than Solomon is here.” (Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31). Jesus positioned himself as the true example of the ideal human who learns wisdom correctly by learning from Yahweh God. In part 5 (52:50-end), the guys discuss the seeming asymmetry of male and female portrayals in the Bible. Why is it that a woman is portrayed as a “wise and foolish woman” in Proverbs? Why are women often portrayed with seductive and illicit behavior? Tim points out that throughout history, men have been the ones translating the Bible, so they have default and built-in blind spots to understanding and accurately portraying a better view of man and woman’s portrayal in the original Hebrew context. 
Tim notes that women have been making great strides in contributing to and furthering academic and scholastic work on biblical texts and that their voices need to be heard. Thank you to all our supporters! Show Resources:  • www.thebibleproject.com • J. Daniel Hays, “Narrative Subtlety in 1 Kings 1-11: Does the narrative praise or bury Solomon?” Show Music: • Roads by LiQwyd • Yesterday on Repeat by Vexento • Moon by LeMMino • self reflection by less.people • Defender Instrumental by Tents Some music for this episode brought to you by the generosity of Chill Hop Music. Show Produced by:  Dan Gummel, Jon Collins Powered and distributed by Simplecast
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