FoundMyFitness

A weekly Health, Fitness and Science podcast
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Consistent patterns of age-based alterations in DNA methylation can be harnessed to estimate age, serving as a sort of "clock," the premise of which is truly remarkable: Predict a person's age (or even lifespan), based on chemical modifications to their DNA that reflect the biological life history of the organism. Dr. Steve Horvath has analyzed large data sets of DNA methylation profiles to derive an algorithm that accurately predicts a person's chronological age across multiple cells, tissues, and organs, and even mammalian species. He built on this algorithm to develop second-generation clocks that could predict time-to-death among people of the same chronological age, as well as lifespan and healthspan. In this episode, Dr. Steven Horvath describes epigenetic clocks and their role in predicting – and possibly slowing – aging. Get this show's notes, timeline, and transcript: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/steve-horvath Dr. Horvath's faculty bio page: https://ph.ucla.edu/faculty/horvath Dr. Horvath's Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Horvath Dr. Rhonda Patrick's 3-minute video crash course in epigenetics: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/epigenetic-clock The FoundMyFitness overview article of epigenetic clocks: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/topics/epigenetic-clocks
In this special two-hour Q&A episode with Dr. Jed Fahey, a world-leading expert on the science of chemoprotection and, in particular, sulforaphane, we discuss many of the listener-submitted questions from the hundreds of live event participants. Get the full timeline and show notes. Listen to learn Dr. Fahey's thoughts on… 00:07:19 - The minimum daily dose of sulforaphane that elicits beneficial health effects 00:12:04 - Why gauging the amount of sulforaphane in foods presents challenges 00:17:37 - Workarounds to enhance the sulforaphane in cooked foods 00:23:38 - How often to consume broccoli sprouts and how long their effects last 00:39:28 - The effects of sulforaphane on glutathione production in the brain 00:43:12 - The effects of sulforaphane on cancer 01:17:26 - Alternatives to sprouts, such as supplements (and which ones Dr. Fahey recommends) 01:33:08 - Safety concerns regarding sulforaphane In this episode, Dr. Fahey mentions the following companies, websites, and supplements: Brassica Protection Products Cullman Chemoprotection Center Crucera SGS® (Thorne) Oncoplex® (Xymogen) Avmacol® Vision Defense® (Swanson) MaxN-Fuze® MitoCORE® (Ortho Molecular Products) Extra resources Learn how to sprout at home safely by downloading the 15-page sprouting guide developed with Dr. Fahey. Sign-up to participate in the live every-single-month Q&A series by becoming a FoundMyFitness premium member.
Giselle Petzinger, MD, an associate professor of Neurology at the University of Southern California and today’s guest, studies the extensive effects of how different types of exercise, in particular skill-based exercise, can affect the clinical outcome for people with Parkinson’s disease. Dr. Petzinger's work focuses on understanding how to promote brain repair after injury, particularly in the context of Parkinson's disease. She is currently investigating ways to enhance neuroplasticity in a preclinical model of the disease. She has examined the role of exercise in Parkinson's disease, with emphasis on how different types of exercise affect distinct regions of the brain. Her work has implications for improving the quality of life of patients diagnosed with the neurological disorder — a condition for which there is no cure. In this episode, we discuss... 00:06:57 - What is Parkinson’s disease? 00:11:57 - How symptoms of Parkinson’s disease generally only appear when ~50% of dopamine-secreting neurons in substantia nigra are lost. 1 00:14:57 - How other circuits in the brain can compensate for the loss of function of the substantia nigra. 00:18:37 - Prevalence and hereditary risk factors of Parkinson’s disease. 00:21:25 - How epidemiological studies have linked increased Parkinson’s disease risk with exposure to pesticides, herbicides, solvents, and certain heavy metals such as manganese. 1 00:26:57 - How exercise can lower the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. 1 2 3 00:35:38 - How skill-based exercise, such as yoga, Tai chi, boxing, tango or skateboarding may play a special role in ameliorating some of the effects of the disease by driving circuit-specific effects, by creating top-down cognitive challenge for skills involved in a patient's movement through space. 00:47:49 - How serum BDNF significantly increases in Parkinson’s patients after 1 month of treadmill exercise and why this might mean better cognitive function. 1 2 00:58:33 - How treadmill exercise with heart rate 80-85% maximum for at least 3x per week slowed the progression of Parkinson’s disease symptoms. 1 01:01:31 - Why exercise may not fully replace the use of medications. 01:09:58 - How the omega-3 fatty acid DHA has some preclinical evidence suggesting it may reduce motor-symptoms and dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease. 1 2 3 4 01:12:12 - How patients with Parkinson’s disease have higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers and how this might contribute to the disease. 1 Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript Get early access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to get started.
Get a sample of our new premium member's content, known as Aliquots, by listening to this in-depth Q&A mashup on Fasting. What's an aliquot, you may ask? Aliquots are special, curated segments prepared and distributed to premium members via the premium members podcast feed. This collection of clips covers a range of topics related to fasting, including associated mechanisms of healthspan and longevity, purported health benefits, and when and how to break the fast. Episode Highlights 00:01:36 - Fasting mimicking diet, the ketogenic diet and autoimmune diseases 00:13:42 - Spermidine is a fasting mimetic compound 00:16:51 - Aerobic exercises in a fasting state induces autophagy quicker than in a fed state. 00:25:15 - Intermittent fasting, prolonged fasting and healthspan. 00:28:02 - What we know about the minimal fasting time it takes to induce autophagy and apoptosis. 00:33:35 - Comparing and contrasting a ketogenic diet with prolonged fasting. 00:37:33 - Rhonda compares the rejuvenation effect of time-restricted eating vs prolonged fasting vs fasting mimicking diet. 00:41:16 - Rhonda's thoughts on coffee breaking a fast. 00:52:29 - Supplements and other medications outside of a time-restricted eating window. 01:01:28 - Differences between a fasting-mimicking diet vs a water-only fast. Learn more about our premium podcast feed The Aliquot by clicking here. Learn more about premium membership benefits by clicking here.
Get a sample of our new premium member's content, known as Aliquots, by listening to this in-depth Q&A mashup on Sauna use. What's an aliquot, you may ask? Aliquots are special, curated segments prepared and distributed to premium members via the premium members podcast feed. This collection of clips covers some of the many health benefits associated with sauna use, including heat shock protein activation, cardiovascular health, muscle mass preservation, and more. Episode Highlights 00:07:00 - What are the effects of sauna and hot baths on heat shock proteins and the immune system? 00:16:14 - What are your recommendations for infrared sauna temperature and time? 00:24:03 - At what temperature and how long do you need to stay in the sauna to activate heat shock proteins? 00:26:50 - Does sauna use promote excretion of heavy metals such as arsenic? 00:29:12 - Are there ways of mimicking sauna use without regular access to a sauna? 00:33:55 - If compounds such as metformin, resveratrol and vitamin E counteract exercise-induced hormesis, would this be true for other stressors such as the sauna, fasting, broccoli sprouts, polyphenols? 00:37:06 - How does fasting affect human growth hormone and IGF-1 in respect to muscle mass? 00:43:30 - Can saunas be used during fasting to preserve more muscle and increase fat burning? 00:45:50 - Can saunas be used to treat headaches? Learn more about our premium podcast feed The Aliquot by clicking here. Learn more about premium membership benefits by clicking here.
Get a sample of our new premium member's content, known as Aliquots, by listening to this in-depth Q&A mashup on pregnancy and child development. What's an aliquot, you may ask? Aliquots are special, curated segments prepared and distributed to premium members via the premium members podcast feed. This particular collection of segments covers every single major discussion of pregnancy and child development spanning years of members-only Q&As. Just for a few examples, it covers... My pre-pregnancy regimen, including diet, exercise, vitamins and sleep Nutrition for babies and toddlers to maximize brain development and growth Extra precautions that I took during my pregnancy And much, much more! Learn more about our premium podcast feed The Aliquot by clicking here. Learn more about premium membership benefits by clicking here.
This episode aims to be the most comprehensive compendium on the biology of breast milk ever recorded. Looking at the converging clinical and animal evidence of the impact of breast milk paints a complex and beautiful mosaic of developmentally supportive effects that range from allowing the mother to act as a “compensatory” immune system to possibly supporting the development of entire organ systems through the integration of maternal stem cells found in breast milk. Episode Highlights 00:07:11 - Breast milk composition and production 00:09:59 - Human milk oligosaccharides in breast milk establish the infant gut microbiome 00:15:48 - Omega-3 fatty acids and other components in breast milk boost brain development 00:18:14 - Vitamins and minerals in breast milk 00:22:05 - Breast milk stem cells and multi-organ microchimerism 00:22:54 - Harmful substances transferred to infant via breast milk 00:28:03 - The effects of breastfeeding on the infant's immune system 00:31:17 - Effects on intelligence 00:34:36 - Breastfeeding as a benefit to maternal health Get our detailed summary, timeline, references and more on the FoundMyFitness episode page. Breastmilk and breast feeding is now a dedicated Topic section on the website. View that article by clicking here. Did you enjoy this episode? If you’re interested in learning more about this topic, check out a preview of our very first Aliquot episode: Aliquot #001: Pregnancy & Child Development. It features a compilation of pregnancy and child development-related topics taken from several Q&A episodes over the last couple of years. Click here to hear this preview of our premium podcast The Aliquot by clicking here now.
This is a continuation of the last episode where Dr. Patrick took questions from newsletter subscribers around the on-going pandemic and tried to add value by talking about some of the recent research, among other things. Some of the topics that came up as a result of the questions submitted include: 00:04:03 - Data surrounding SARS-CoV-2 duration 00:06:37 - SARS-CoV-2 and potential immunity 00:11:35 - Some of the main factors known to play a role in immune variation 00:12:05 - What role genetics may play in immune function 00:14:27 - How previous viral exposure regulates immunity 00:15:05 - What cross immunity is and how it may be relevant for SARS-CoV-2 00:19:46 - Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 relevance 00:21:50 - How sleep is a key regulator of immune function 00:23:44 - Microbiome composition and immune function 00:28:31 - The differential effects of exercise intensity and duration on immune regulation 00:35:00 - How specific micronutrient inadequacies may promote immune dysregulation 00:47:20 - The effect of sex hormones on immune function 00:48:55 - How biological age age may play a role in immune regulation 00:49:46 - Controversy surrounding hypertension drugs such as ACE inhibitors and COVID-19 00:53:15 - ARDS and long-term lung damage Get our detailed summary, timeline, references and more on the FoundMyFitness episode page. This episode mentions a number of genetic polymorphisms that affect viral entry into the host cell, viral replication, host immune response ranging from cytokine production to viral-induced inflammation, SNPs that affect vitamin D levels and more. If you have used any consumer-based genetic testing services like 23andMe or Ancestry DNA we have a free viral report with these SNPs that you can check out. Learn more about this free report by clicking here. If you enjoy this content or any of the associated content, I can promise you that not only does the premium membership help bring MORE of it into the world in a broadly accessible format, that membership also comes with some really great benefits just for members. Members enjoy extra science emails twice per month, my monthly Question & Answer sessions, and a whole lot more. Support the show and get cool perks, that's the bottom line. Click here to learn more about premium membership.
In this episode, Dr. Rhonda Patrick discuss all things vitamin C. This episode covers oral bioavailability, intravenous vitamin C bioavailability, immune cell function, common cold and other viral infections, lung function, sepsis, pneumonia, inflammation, intravenous vitamin C and cancer, role in exercise, safety concerns, and so, so much more! Episode Timeline (abridged) 00:07:33 - Background on vitamin C 00:17:09 - Bioavailability of vitamin C [including dosing frequency] 00:22:53 - Vitamin C in the context of the common cold 00:28:09 - Vitamin C and lung function 00:35:54 - Vitamin C in the context of exercise [includes discussion of blunting of exercise adaptation] 00:45:51 - Vitamin C and fatty acid oxidation, including relevance in obesity 00:48:44 - Vitamin C and the brain 00:51:15 - Intravenous Vitamin C and its use for the treatment of certain kinds of infection 00:55:33 - Intravenous Vitamin C and cancer 00:57:40 - Effect of Vitamin C on fertility and reproduction 00:58:36 - Intravenous vitamin C and cardiovascular health 01:00:42 - Vitamin C and inflammation 01:02:38 - Vitamin C’s mechanisms of action 01:08:34 - Intravenous and Oral vitamin C safety 01:10:20 - Vitamin C intake and kidney stone risk 01:13:57 - Conclusions Get the full timeline, show summary, and all references for this episode by clicking here. View our new 28-page vitamin C overview article with over 190 references by clicking here. Premium membership: Members enjoy extra science emails twice per month, my monthly Question & Answer sessions, and a whole lot more. Support the show and get cool perks, that's the bottom line. Click here to learn more about premium membership.
This episode features Dr. Rhonda Patrick answering some of the most popular questions related to COVID-19. Look for another COVID-19-focused Q&A, coming soon. Some of the questions we selected from the batch to cover in this episode include: 00:02:36 - Are children and infants susceptible to COVID-19? Are some more susceptible to a more severe form of the disease? Are they carriers of it and possibly spreading transmission? 00:11:00 - Can you explain a little about hydroxychloroquine as possibly treating COVID-19? How does it work? Does it have to do with it being a zinc ionophore? 00:17:58 - Can you talk about quercetin's role as a zinc ionophore? 00:20:51 - Is there any indication blood type influences COVID-19 risk? 00:24:52 - Would you shed light on the conversation regarding vitamin D upregulating ACE2 receptors and vitamin D's influence on susceptibility to COVID19 infection? 00:43:45 - Can you discuss whether sauna use might help prevent COVID19? 00:52:55 - Is it true that high dose intravenous vitamin C might help treat COVID-19? 01:04:35 - What are your thoughts on melatonin being a potential factor for impacting the severity of the virus via its effects on inflammation and oxidative stress? To supplement this podcast Q&A, we’ve also made a video, summary, timeline, and references. You can view all of these on the episodes page on my website at foundmyfitness.com/episodes/covid-19-qa-1. If you enjoy this question & answer format, consider joining my premium membership community! Non-COVID-19 related Q&As happen monthly, you get access to an an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and much more more! Click here to learn about premium.
This episode was originally recorded for The Kevin Rose Show. Given some of the unique discussions we had, I had no choice but to ask the great Kevin Rose if he would let me re-post it over here on the FoundMyFitness podcast feed. A request which he graciously obliged. In this episode, we discuss... 00:08:00 - Omega-3 00:27:23 - Metformin 00:50:05 - Sulforaphane 01:06:57 - Magnesium L-Threonate 01:13:44 - Sauna 01:23:48 - New FMF Membership Learn more about the new premium membership. Learn more about sauna on our overview page. Learn more about metformin on our overview page. Learn more about Kevin Rose at his website or on his Twitter @kevinrose. You can also subscribe to either of his two podcasts: Kevin Rose Show Foundation by True Ventures
In this episode, Rhonda gives a summary of the science of resveratrol including its effects in animals and humans, mechanisms, and the bottom line on resveratrol supplementation and safety. Learn more about resveratrol at our comprehensive overview Relevant timepoints... 00:03:39 - Clinical effects of resveratrol in humans 00:04:10 - Effects on cardiovascular health biomarkers in humans 00:06:54 - Reduction of inflammatory biomarkers in humans 00:08:11 - Improved cognition and memory in clinical studies 00:11:23 - Healthspan improvements in animals 00:12:28 - Induction of longevity genes via xenohormesis 00:16:19 - Contradictory effects on exercise-associated benefits 00:20:34 - Various factors that affect resveratrol bioavailability 00:23:09 - Unintentional effects on drug metabolism Get earlier access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to learn about premium. Click here to sign-up for a three issue trial of the bi-monthly science digest.
In this episode, Rhonda describes NAD+ (perhaps one of the most important molecules in the human body), why it is so important for aging, and why it declines with age. She discusses some of the popular NAD+ boosters like nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide, explains what the animal and human data say, discusses some of the concerns associated with using these boosters, and provides some concluding thoughts. Learn more about NAD+ Learn more about nicotinamide riboside Learn more about nicotinamide mononucleotide Learn more about sirtuins Get earlier access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to get started.
David A. Sinclair, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging. He is the co-founder of the journal Aging, where he serves as co-chief editor. Dr. Sinclair's work focuses on understanding the mechanisms that drive human aging and identifying ways to slow or reverse aging's effects. In particular, he has examined the role of sirtuins in disease and aging, with special emphasis on how sirtuin activity is modulated by compounds produced by the body as well as those consumed in the diet, such as resveratrol. His work has implications for human metabolism, mitochondrial and neurological health, and cancer. In this episode, we discuss... 00:17:59 - How caloric restriction, fasting, and exercise increase levels of a molecule called NAD+ and how this activates sirtuins, a family of genes involved in longevity. 00:21:47 - How NAD+ levels and sirtuin activities decrease with age, and how animal studies suggest that raising cellular NAD+ levels can trick the body into thinking it is younger. 00:23:03 - How resveratrol enhances the binding of sirtuins to NAD+ thus making sirtuins more easily activated for a longer period. 00:27:36 - We also discuss Steve Horvath's epigenetic aging clock, which measures DNA methylation groups, and how they may play a role in widespread gene regulation, including sirtuin genes, and how NAD+ may participate in resetting the clock. 00:31:54 - How the signal that resets the epigenetic clock in mice involves the Yamanaka factors -- a group of four transcription factors that can reprogram an adult cell to become a pluripotent stem cell that can form any cell type. 00:46:48 - How resveratrol is a xenohormetic compound and is produced when grape plants are stressed either in response to fungus or lack of water. 00:55:35 - How a phase 2 clinical trial involving people with Alzheimer's disease showed resveratrol improved cognitive function, improved cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta levels, lowered markers of activated microglia, and more. 00:58:03 - How both nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide have been shown to improve cognitive function and brain pathology in mice that have been engineered to get a disease similar to Alzheimer's disease. 01:06:19 - How older mice that were given nicotinamide mononucleotide experienced delayed aging in the liver, muscle, immune cells, eyes, and bones, but those that took a lower dose had improved mitochondrial function and enhanced physical performance. 01:01:22 - How there may be challenges in translating animal studies on nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide to humans particularly due to the need to determine the dose required to promote health benefits. And so much more! Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript Watch this episode's highlights on the FMF Clips channel Get early access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to get started. Submit your raw genetic data to get the latest version of the genetic report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
This podcast is the audio from a presentation Dr. Rhonda Patrick gave on how the sauna may be an exercise mimetic for heat health and healthspan. Sauna use has emerged as a means to increase lifespan and improve overall health, based on compelling data from observational, interventional, and mechanistic studies. Listen in to find out more. Click here to get the episode show notes and video. Watch the episode with cardiologist and sauna scientist Dr. Jari Laukkanen. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast.
In this short episode, Dr. Patrick discusses some of the compelling science including observational studies, randomized controlled trials, and human mechanistic studies that suggests exercise is a powerful tool for preventing or managing the symptoms of depression and mental illness. Moreover, she talks about the specific types of exercise and exercise parameters that evidence suggests might be the most helpful for depression. This podcast started its life as a video, so make sure to check out the full video or the references and episode notes on the episode page. Click here to get this episode's show notes and video. Click here to visit the in-depth depression topic page. See the full interview with Dr. Charles Raison. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast and access the premium members benefits.
Elissa Epel, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco where she serves as the director of the Aging, Metabolism, and Emotions Center. Her research centers on the mechanisms of healthy aging and the associations between stress, telomere length, addiction, eating, and metabolic health. In this episode, we dive deep into the world of telomeres, the length of which is one of the useful biomarkers scientists have for getting a sense of the differences between how individuals or groups of individuals age. Telomere shortening is both a cause and a symptom of aging and plays key roles in not only how long we live, but in how well. Lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition and smoking can accelerate telomere shortening by generating oxidative stress and inflammation. Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript. Watch this episode's highlights on the FMF Clips channel. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Submit your raw genetic data. You can find the Telomere report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
Matthew Walker, Ph.D., is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and serves as the Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science. Formerly, Dr. Walker served as a professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. Walker's research examines the impact of sleep on human health and disease. One area of interest focuses on identifying "vulnerability windows" during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition from loss of slow wave sleep and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life. Dr. Walker earned his undergraduate degree in neuroscience from the University of Nottingham, UK, and his Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the Medical Research Council, London, UK. He is the author of the New York Times best-selling book Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams. Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript. Watch nearly twenty-seven episode highlights on the new FMF Clips channel. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Submit your raw genetic data. You can find the APOE report and the Circadian Report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
This episode features a Q&A session with Dr. Rhonda Patrick. The questions were sourced from social media followers of both FoundMyFitness and also Zero Fasting Tracker, a convenient mobile app used widely in the fasting community for logging. In this 45-minute podcast, Dr. Patrick answers some of the most popular questions related to fasting, including: What effects coffee, supplements, and amino acids have on fasting Whether one method of fasting is more beneficial than others What effect the consumption of exogenous ketones have on fasting Whether it is good to exercise while fasting The ideal way to break a fast How fasting affects muscle mass How fasting plays a role in the growth-longevity tradeoff ... and more! Watch the video of the conversion or get the timeline here. Learn how you can support the FoundMyFitness podcast for as little or as much as you like by clicking here.
Dale E. Bredesen, M.D., is a professor of neurology at the Easton Laboratories for Neurodegenerative Disease Research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr. Bredesen's laboratory focuses on identifying and understanding basic mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process and the translation of this knowledge into effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. He has collaborated on the publication of more than 220 academic research papers. His work has culminated in the development of a protocol called ReCODE – reversal of cognitive decline – currently used by over 3,000 patients with the goal of not just preventing, but reversing Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Click here to get the episode's show notes and transcript. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Submit your raw genetic data.You can find the APOE report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
This podcast is a spectacular round two podcast with Dr. Valter Longo. Dr. Longo is the current director of the longevity institute at the University of Southern California and also director of the Oncology and Longevity Program at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation in Milan, Italy. Dr. Longo’s research focuses understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate the aging process, the role of fasting and diet in longevity and healthspan in humans as well as metabolic fasting therapies for the treatment of human diseases. In this episode, we discuss... What two seminal studies on chronic caloric restriction in primates from the 80s teach us about caloric restriction as a preventer of age-related disease, and how the effects of caloric restriction may actually be stronger when the diet that is being restricted is an unhealthy one – similar, in some ways, to the typical western diet. How certain macronutrients influence the insulin/IGF-1/growth hormone axis interact to modulate aging in many cell types. How mice and humans who have growth hormone receptor deficiencies have low circulating IGF-1 – as little as 10% of normal levels – and have reduced risk of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and age-related cognitive decline, hinting at what future research might reveal about the beneficial effects of prolonged fasting and fasting-mimicking diets through the downstream effects of periodic deprival of growth-related factors. How the growth hormone / IGF-1 axis got a big boost early on in scientific interest when it was revealed that mice that have either deficiency in growth hormone itself or the growth hormone receptor live up to 40% longer and how this is accomplished through what is essentially a delaying of the decrepitudes of old age. The origins of what Dr. Longo calls the fasting-mimicking diet – a 5-day diet focused on recapitulating some of the benefits of prolonged fasting, like dramatic changes in metabolic biomarkers, but without some of the drawbacks like reduced compliance and other risks that can come with multiple days of grueling strict water fasting in large, heterogeneous populations. How periodic prolonged fasting or the fasting-mimicking diet may be able to render cancer cells more vulnerable while conferring stress resistance to healthy cells, a quality known as differential stress resistance. This can happen because of the way fasting interferes with what is known as oncogenic signaling. The mixed results associated with the use of the ketogenic diet in treatment of cancer and how some cancers seem to be hurt by the metabolic switch of utilizing ketone bodies, which creates oxidative stress from the use of mitochondria, while other cancers seem to be able to use ketones effectively as an energy source, potentially accelerating their growth. Some of the early but promising pre-trial clinical anecdata suggesting potential complementary roles for the ketogenic diet and the fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) used in conjunction with conventional treatments like chemotherapy or radiotherapy for certain cancers like gliomas. In the context of aging, how the fasting mimicking diet has been shown to “reset” metabolism, driving down biomarkers associated with poor metabolic health, inflammation, and cardiovascular health. How fasting, through the shrinking and then re-expansion of whole systems like the liver, kidneys, heart, and immune cells may represent a type of whole-system renewal that originated as a three-billion-year-old self-repair mode that was only activated during periods of famine or inconsistent food availability, but might now be dormant in people living in a modern world of regular food intake. How Dr. Longo’s group has shown that, in animal models of multiple sclerosis and pharmacologically-induced type 1 diabetes, several cycles of the fasting-mimicking diet is able to reverse disease and restore healthful function. This mechanism also may generalize to erasing other diseases of autoimmunity through the destruction of autoimmune immune cells that are essentially reset through fresh differentiation from progenitors untainted by autoimmunity. A very exciting area of continued inquiry! How shorter fasts may fail to approach some of the effects of periodic fasting and the fasting-mimicking diet by failing to achieve adequate glycogen depletion and ketogenesis. Dr. Longo’s “top picks” for assessing biological age – markers a person can ask their doctor to measure to gauge how well they’re aging. A sneak peek at what’s covered in Dr. Longo’s new book, The Longevity Diet. … and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown. Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Charles Raison, M.D. is a professor at the School of Human Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Founding Director of the Center for Compassion Studies in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Arizona. Dr. Raison’s research focuses on inflammation and the development of depression in response to illness and stress. He also examines the physical and behavioral effects of compassion training on the brain, inflammatory processes, and behavior as well as the effect of heat stress as a potentially therapeutic intervention major depressive disorder. In this nearly 2-hour episode, we discuss the extremely dynamic interaction that the immune system has with mood, behavior, and the brain, as well as the potential that whole-body hyperthermia, a research technique mostly indistinguishable from sauna use, may have for the treatment of clinical depression. Additionally, we also talk about…. How depression as a disease may be subdivided based on whether or not there is involvement of chronic inflammation and how this could influence how it should be treated. The changes in functional brain connectivity that are associated with the high inflammation subtype of depression. The physiological similarities a sauna, hot bath, steam shower, and hot yoga have with whole-body hyperthermia from the standpoint of potentially therapeutically boosting body temperature. Preliminary evidence that increased expression of a certain heat shock protein in the brain may influence behavior by protecting against stress-induced depression. … and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown. Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Eric M. Verdin, M.D. is the fifth president and chief executive officer of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and is a professor of Medicine at UCSF. Dr. Verdin's laboratory focuses on the role of epigenetic regulators in the aging process, the role of metabolism and diet in aging and on the chronic diseases of aging, including Alzheimer’s, proteins that play a central role in linking caloric restriction to increased healthspan, and more recently a topic near and dear to many of you, ketogenesis. He's held faculty positions at the University of Brussels, the NIH and the Picower Institute for Medical Research. In this episode, we discuss... The effects of a low protein, cyclic ketogenic diet beginning in midlife (12 months of age) in male mice. The result? Increased healthspan and improved memory. Dr. Verdin explains how the cyclic ketogenic diet decreased insulin, IGF-1, and mTOR signaling and decreased fatty acid synthesis, and increased PPAR-alpha (which promotes beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle). How this diet is somewhat qualitatively similar to fasting. Some of the possible reasons why the cyclic ketogenic diet created such a striking improvement in memory even when compared to younger mice. How beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is the major circulating ketone body during fasting and nutritional ketosis, may, in addition to being an energy source, regulate inflammation and gene expression by acting as a signaling molecule by inhibiting what are known as class 1 histone deacetylases (HDACs). How this inhibition of class 1 HDACs leads to the increased expression of notorious longevity gene Foxo3, which may help explain why mice given an exogenous beta-hydroxybutyrate ester had lower markers of inflammation and oxidative damage, which are physiological contributors to the aging process. The role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the aging process and how replacing declining levels (or preventing them from declining in the first place) may prove to be an important anti-aging strategy. Some of the reasons why NAD+ might be declining with age, its role in DNA damage repair via an enzyme known as PARP, and what the literature says about the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside. How a special class of enzymes called sirtuins, also known to be activated by caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetic resveratrol, is tightly correlated with the level of NAD+ and how this "energetic currency" rises in response to fasting. The role of the sirtuin enzymes in regulating mitochondrial function, neuronal functions, stem cell rejuvenation and why they may be important in delaying the aging process. Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
This is a nearly 2-hour round 2 episode with none other than Dr. Satchin Panda of the Salk Institute! At nearly two hours of dialog, this episode touches on a lot of material but has a special focus on practical implementation of time-restricted eating. Put another way, I kept a list of a lot of questions that seem to keep coming up and present them directly to Satchin. We talk about dealing with shift work, black coffee when fasting, and some of the distinctions between Satchin's approach to time-restricted eating which is influenced by his deep background in circadian biology and more conventional protocols like 16:8 that many people are familiar with. In addition to these important and very practical how-to tidbits, we dive into lots of interesting new territory as well, including... How human anecdote and animal evidence suggests time-restricted feeding may be especially useful for gut-related issues, including inflammatory bowel disease and acid reflux. The fascinating way Dr. Panda is using human anecdote from his trial to ask new scientific questions he wouldn't think to ask and then going back to animal data to figure it out and how this unique approach forms a sort of closed loop pattern: animal → human feedback → back to animal for mechanism. How labs doing caloric restriction research may have actually been reaping the benefits of time-restricted without realizing it as an incidental to their experimental design. The revelation that 70% of FDA drugs are subject to circadian effects and are either less effective or more effective at certain times of the day. The effect melatonin has on the pancreatic production of insulin and the insight this lends to why we should probably stop eating 3-4 hours before we go to bed. The bizarre way circadian rhythms affects everything from susceptibility to UV damage to recovery from surgery to cancer risk. Sign-up for Dr. Panda's mobile app study on time-restricted eating. Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Dr. Guido Kroemer is a professor at the University of Paris Descartes and an expert in immunology, cancer biology, aging, and autophagy. He is one of the most highly cited authors in the field of cell biology and was the most highly cited cell biologist for the period between 2007 and 2013. Especially notable among his contributions: he was the first to discover that the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes is a concrete step towards apoptotic cell death. This episode is decidedly focused on autophagy, an important cellular program that is inducible by dietary fasting and has broad implications for aging and cancer. Autophagy discussion includes: How the 3 main signals that activate autophagy all involve nutrient sensing (00:09:09). The role of different types of fasting and nutrient deprivation in autophagy (00:20:55). How different types of exercise can induce autophagy (00:24:35). How a specific type of autophagy called mitophagy keeps mitochondria healthy (00:36:29). How autophagy has been shown to slow cellular aging (00:33:07). How autophagy prevents neurodegenerative diseases by clearing away protein aggregates (00:39:38). The role of autophagy in cancer as a possible double-edged sword (00:48:29). How certain compounds known as caloric restriction mimetics (or fasting mimetics) including resveratrol, spermidine, hydroxycitrate can induce autophagy by tricking the cell through the modulation of one or more of the 3 main autophagy signaling pathways (00:54:52). Visit Dr. Guido Kroemer's website. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Watch the full video on YouTube.
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Podcast Details

Created by
Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D.
Podcast Status
Active
Started
Jul 2nd, 2013
Latest Episode
Dec 22nd, 2020
Release Period
Weekly
Episodes
76
Avg. Episode Length
About 1 hour
Explicit
No
Language
English

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