People's History of Ideas Podcast

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The tension between maintaining the united front and mobilizing the peasants for revolution finds expression in a crucial debate over strategy at the end of 1926.Further reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Tony Saich, The Rise to Power of the Chinese Communist PartyStuart Schram, ed., Mao’s Road to Power, vol. 2: National Revolution and Social Revolution, December 1920-June 1927Some names from this episode:Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangGregory Voitinsky, Chairman of the Far Eastern Bureau of the CominternChen Duxiu, General Secretary of the Communist PartyWang Jingwei, Main leader of the Guomindang left
Debate breaks out within the Communist Party and the Comintern over how to assess the balance of forces and relate to the developing revolutionary situation engendered by the mass movements in Hunan and Hubei in late 1926.Further reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Tony Saich, The Rise to Power of the Chinese Communist PartyArif Dirlik, “Mass Movements and the Left Kuomintang”Steve Smith, A Road Is Made: Communism in Shanghai, 1920-1927Daniel Kwan, Marxist Intellectuals and the Chinese Labor Movement: A Study of Deng Zhongxia, 1894-1933Some names from this episode:Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangWang Jingwei, Main leader of the Guomindang leftChen Gongbo, Close follower of Wang JingweiSun Chuanfang, leader of warlord coalition which held east China before being defeated during the Northern ExpeditionVasily Blyukher, Soviet general purported to be de facto commander-in-chief of Northern ExpeditionTang Shengzhi, Hunan warlord who sided with the National Revolutionary Army and contested leadership with Chiang Kai-shekGregory Voitinsky, Chairman of the Far Eastern Bureau of the Comintern
Mass upheaval in Hunan and elsewhere after people are liberated from warlord rule.Further reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Yokoyama Suguru, “The Peasant Movement in Hunan”Stuart Schram, ed., Mao’s Road to Power, vol. 2: National Revolution and Social Revolution, December 1920-June 1927A name from this episode:Wu Peifu, Northern warlord
Examining the role of both organized and unorganized mass support for the Northern Expedition in its first phase, the offensive from Guangdong to Wuhan from May to October 1926. Further reading:Donald Jordan, The Northern Expedition: China's National Revolution of 1926-1928C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Some names from this episode:Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangChen Duxiu, General Secretary of the Communist PartySun Zhongshan/Sun Yatsen, Founding leader of the GuomindangWu Peifu, Northern warlordGregory Voitinsky, Comintern representative in China at various points 
Mao's political activity and intellectual development during the first nine months of 1926.Further Reading:Gerald Berkley, “The Canton Peasant Movement Training Institute”Stuart Schram, ed., Mao’s Road to Power, vol. 2: National Revolution and Social Revolution, December 1920-June 1927Yokoyama Suguru, “The Peasant Movement in Hunan”Philip C. C. Huang, “Mao Tse-Tung and the Middle Peasants, 1925-1928”Angus McDonald, “The Hunan Peasant Movement Its Urban Origins”Some names from this episode:Shen Yanbing (Mao Dun), Communist writer and later Culture Minister, in 1926 worked with Mao Zedong in Guomindang propaganda departmentZhao Hengti, Dominant warlord in HunanTang Shengzhi, Subordinate of Zhao who allied with the Guomindang and displaced ZhaoWu Peifu, Northern warlordNikolay Kuibyshev, Soviet general and head of military mission in Guangdong in late 1925 and early 1926Andrei Bubnov, Headed Soviet military inspection mission to China in early 1926Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangPeng Pai, Communist peasant organizer
How the Communist Party took the formula of "Haifeng + armed self-defense" and set out to organize the peasants of Guangdong, and beyond.Further Reading:Pang Yong-pil, “Peng Pai: From Landlord to Revolutionary”Yuan Gao, “Revolutionary Rural Politics: The Peasant Movement in Guangdong and Its Social-Historical Background, 1922–1926”Robert Marks, Rural Revolution in South China: Peasants and the Making of History in Haifeng County, 1570-1930Roy Hofheinz, The Broken Wave: The Chinese Communist Peasant Movement, 1922-1928Fernando Galbiati, P’eng P'ai and the Hai-Lu-Feng SovietGerald Berkley, “The Canton Peasant Movement Training Institute”C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Elizabeth Perry, Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945Some names from this episode:Peng Pai, Communist peasant organizerChen Jiongming, Warlord dominant in Haifeng region until 1925Li Zhongkai, Leader of Guomindang left, assassinated in 1925Li Dazhao, Co-founder of the Communist Party
Peng Pai and the beginning of the peasant movement in Guangdong Province.Further Reading:Pang Yong-pil, “Peng Pai: From Landlord to Revolutionary”Yuan Gao, “Revolutionary Rural Politics: The Peasant Movement in Guangdong and Its Social-Historical Background, 1922–1926”Robert Marks, Rural Revolution in South China: Peasants and the Making of History in Haifeng County, 1570-1930Roy Hofheinz, The Broken Wave: The Chinese Communist Peasant Movement, 1922-1928Fernando Galbiati, P’eng P'ai and the Hai-Lu-Feng SovietSome names from this episode:Peng Pai, Communist peasant organizerLi Dazhao, Co-founder of the Communist PartyChen Jiongming, Warlord dominant in Haifeng region until 1925Zhu Mo, Bad landlord in Haifeng CountyZhang Zepu, Judge in Haifeng County
Tensions come to a head between Chiang Kai-shek, Wang Jingwei and General Kuibyshev, as a Soviet plot backfires spectacularly.Further Reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Wu Tien-wei, “Chiang Kai-shek's March Twentieth Coup d'Etat of 1926”Barbara Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-1945Some names from this episode:Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangWang Jingwei, Leader of Guomindang government in Guangdong in late 1925 and early 1926Dai Jitao, Right-wing Guomindang ideologueNikolay Kuibyshev, Soviet general and head of military mission in Guangdong in late 1925 and early 1926Victor Rogachev, Soviet general and adviser to Chiang Kai-shekLi Zhilong, Communist in Guomindang navyHu Hanmin, Leader of Guomindang right-wing, spent a period of exile in the USSRAndrei Bubnov, Headed Soviet military inspection mission to ChinaGeneral V. A. Stepanov, Headed Soviet military mission after Kuibyshev left and before Blyukher returnedVasily Blyukher, Soviet general whose return was requested by Chiang Kai-shekChen Duxiu, General Secretary of the Communist Party
An oral history interview with Monica Shay (née Newbold, aka Kathryn) about her experience in China in 1971-72.Some names from this episode:William Hinton, author of Fanshen and other books on ChinaJiang Qing, leading radical during Cultural Revolution and wife of Mao ZedongRevolutionary Union (RU), pro-China communist group in the US in early 1970sDazhai, model agricultural commune
The song "New China" by the band Prairie Fire, from the 1976 album Break the Chains. This song will be referenced in our next episode.
Mao’s first major statement on the need for a strategic reorientation toward mobilizing the peasantry.The chart cited in the episode is now on the podcast website (as of 8-24-20): https://peopleshistoryofideas.com/episode-33-the-beginning-of-maoism-mao-zedongs-analysis-of-all-the-classes-in-chinese-society/.Further Reading:Stuart Schram, ed., Mao’s Road to Power, vol. 2: National Revolution and Social Revolution, December 1920-June 1927Philip C. C. Huang, “Mao Tse-Tung and the Middle Peasants, 1925-1928”Some names from this episode:Chen Duxiu, General Secretary of the Communist PartyLi Dazhao, Co-founder of Communist Party
Mao as acting head of propaganda for the Guomindang.Further Reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Stuart Schram, ed., Mao’s Road to Power, vol. 2: National Revolution and Social Revolution, December 1920-June 1927Some names from this episode:Wang Jingwei, Leader of Guomindang government in Guangdong in late 1925 and early 1926Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangChen Duxiu, General Secretary of the Communist PartyGregory Voitinsky, Comintern representative in China at various pointsDai Jitao, Right-wing Guomindang ideologue
The Hong Kong strike, the assassination of Liao Zhongkai, and the Second Eastern Expedition.Further Reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927John Erickson, The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941Some names from this episode:Chiang Kai-shek, Japan-trained military officer, close confidant of Sun YatsenDeng Zhongxia, Communist labor leader, involved in Hong Kong strikeWang Jingwei, Potential heir apparent to Sun Yatsen as leader of GuomindangLiao Zhongkai, Potential heir apparent to Sun Yatsen as leader of GuomindangHu Hanmin, Potential heir apparent to Sun Yatsen as leader of Guomindang (further to Right than the other two)Chen Jiongming, Southern warlord, ally and then enemy of Sun YatsenMikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangZhou Enlai, Communist head of the Whampoa Academy political department, leading commissar on Second Eastern ExpeditionVictor Rogachev, Soviet general and adviser to Chiang Kai-shek
The National Revolutionary Army battles the warlords for supremacy in Guangdong, while the British and French escalate tensions by massacring supporters of a strike which shut down Hong Kong.Further Reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Some names from this episode:Chiang Kai-shek, Japan-trained military officer, close confidant of Sun YatsenVasily Blyukher, Soviet general who led military mission to aid GuomindangZhou Enlai, Communist head of the Whampoa Academy political departmentWang Jingwei, Potential heir apparent to Sun Yatsen as leader of GuomindangLiao Zhongkai, Potential heir apparent to Sun Yatsen as leader of GuomindangHu Hanmin, Potential heir apparent to Sun Yatsen as leader of Guomindang (further to Right than the other two)Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangSun Zhongshan/Sun Yatsen, leader of the Guomindang, died in March 1925Chen Jiongming, Southern warlord, ally and then enemy of Sun Yatsen
The first year of the Soviet military alliance with the Guomindang, including the creation of the Whampoa Military Academy, the formation of the National Revolutionary Army, and the crushing of the Merchant Corps.Further Reading:C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927John Erickson, The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941Some names from this episode:Mikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangChiang Kai-shek, Japan-trained military officer, close confidant of Sun YatsenChen Jiongming, Southern warlord, ally and then enemy of Sun YatsenDeng Zhongxia, Leading Communist labor organizerGregory Voitinsky, Comintern representative in China at various points, much more wary of Sun Yatsen and the Guomindang than BorodinSun Zhongshan/Sun Yatsen, leader of the Guomindang
Workers, students and merchants in Shanghai take on the British authorities of the International Settlement and Japanese mill owners after protesters are massacred.Further Reading:Steve Smith, A Road Is Made: Communism in Shanghai, 1920-1927Some names from this episode:Li Lisan, Communist leader of the Shanghai General Labor UnionZhang Xueliang, son of Zhang Zuolin, occupied Shanghai’s Chinese cityZhang Zuolin, northern warlordGregory Voitinsky, Comintern representative in China in 1925Liu Shaoqi, Communist leader just below Li Lisan in the Shanghai General Labor UnionLiu Hua, Union activist executed for leading role in May 30 Movement 
In response to a listener request, we consider the situation in the United States today in light of historical thinking on the question of revolutionary situations.Further reading:Lenin, The Collapse of the Second International (chapter two)Lenin, Letters from AfarLenin, “Marxism and Insurrection”
The Communist Party tries to figure out how to put the workers in the lead of the nationalist revolution, and has some initial success.Further Reading:Steve Smith, A Road Is Made: Communism in Shanghai, 1920-1927Some names from this episode:Deng Zhongxia, Leading Communist labor organizerLi Dazhao, Co-founder of the Communist Party, often credited as China’s first MarxistLi Lisan, Leading Communist labor organizerChen Duxiu, Chen Duxiu, General secretary of the Communist PartyGregory Voitinsky, Comintern representative in China in 1925Yang Zhihua, Communist leader in women’s movement
The thinking of Chinese Communism’s two founders, Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu, diverges as revolutionary experience is gained.Further Reading:Maurice Meisner, Li Ta-Chao and the Origins of Chinese MarxismSome names from this episode:Li Dazhao, Co-founder of the Communist Party, often credited as China’s first MarxistChen Duxiu, Co-founder and first general secretary of the Communist PartyZhang Guotao, Communist leader and opponent of ‘united front from within’ with Guomindang
As both the Guomindang and the Communist Party benefit from their collaboration, tensions build.Further reading:Tony Saich, The Origins of the First United Front in ChinaSteve Smith, A Road Is Made: Communism in Shanghai, 1920-1927Alexander Pantsov, The Bolsheviks and the Chinese Revolution, 1919-1927C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 1920-1927Arif Dirlik, “Mass Movements and the Left Kuomintang”Some names from this episode:Sun Zhongshan/Sun Yatsen, leader of the GuomindangMikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the GuomindangChen Jiongming, Southern warlord, ally and then enemy of Sun YatsenChiang Kai-shek, Japan-trained military officer, close confidant of Sun YatsenLev Karakhan, Soviet ambassador to China beginning in 1923Gregory Chicherin, Soviet People’s Commissar for Foreign AffairsChen Duxiu, General Secretary of the Communist Party
A podcast version of a recently published article which argues that the rightward turn of Chinese politics in the 1970s was a key contributing factor in ending the revolutionary era of the long and global 1960s and ushering in the neoliberal age of reaction which followed.The article can be read on the podcast website.
The Communist Party of China tries to find a way to implement the united front with the Guomindang in 1923, but ultimately has to wait for the Soviet-Guomindang alliance to mature.Further reading:Tony Saich, The Origins of the First United Front in ChinaStuart Schram, ed., Mao’s Road to Power, vol. 2Some names from this episode: Sun Zhongshan/Sun Yatsen, leader of the GuomindangWang Jingwei, leader of Guomindang left-wing, later president of Japanese puppet state in ChinaCao Kun, northern warlord who controlled BeijingLi Yuanhong, president of China from 1922-1923Zhang Guotao, communist leader and opponent of ‘united front from within’ with GuomindangHenk Sneevliet, alias Maring, Dutch Communist and Comintern leader in China from 1921-1923Chiang Kai-shek, Japan-trained military officer, close confidant of Sun YatsenMikhail Borodin, Comintern agent and head of Soviet mission to aid the Guomindang
The Communist Party begins its labor organizing drive, and the Comintern pushes for a united front with the Guomindang.Further reading:Elizabeth Perry, Shanghai on StrikeTony Saich, The Origins of the First United Front in ChinaSteve Smith, A Road Is Made: Communism in Shanghai 1920-1927 Some names from this episode:Henk Sneevliet, alias Maring, Dutch Communist and Comintern leader in China beginning in 1921Zhang Guotao, emerged from founding congress as an important Communist leaderSun Zhongshan/Sun Yatsen, leader of the GuomindangLi Qihan, communist teacher and labor organizer who pioneered utilization of secret society contacts in labor organizingHuang Ai, anarchist labor organizer executed in 1922Pang Renquan, anarchist labor organizer executed in 1922Chen Duxiu, first general secretary of the Chinese Communist PartyGregory Voitinsky, leader of Comintern delegation to China in 1920Chen Jiongming, progressive southern warlord, sometime opponent of Sun YatsenV. Lidin, Comintern agent in China, subordinate to MaringLi Dazhao, leading CommunistAdolph Joffe, Soviet ambassador to ChinaGeorgy Safarov, head of eastern section of the CominternWu Peifu, northern warlord who crushed railroad workers’ strike in 1923
The early divergence in strategic thinking and revolutionary priorities between the CCP and the Comintern. Further reading:Tony Saich, The Origins of the First United Front in ChinaSome names from this episode:Chen Gongbo, Founding Chinese Communist who studied at Columbia and later joined the Japanese puppet regimeHenk Sneevliet, alias Maring, Dutch Communist and Comintern leader in China beginning in 1921Sun Zhongshan/Sun Yat-sen, leader of the GuomindangGeorgii Chicherin, People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Soviet UnionLao Xiuchao, Chinese Bolshevik who attended the first Comintern Congress in 1919Chen Duxiu, editor of New Youth and first general secretary of the Chinese Communist PartyGregory Voitinsky, Leader of Comintern delegation to China in 1920Zhang Guotao, emerged from founding congress as important Communist leaderLi Hanjun, advocated study and propaganda as main party activities as first congressLiu Renjing, one of the Beijing delegates to the first party congress 
Polemics with non-revolutionary Marxists and anarchists, and then the party congress in July 1921.Further reading:Arif Dirlik, The Origins of Chinese CommunismSome names from this episode:Chen Duxiu, editor of New Youth and leader of Shanghai Communist nucleusGregory Voitinsky, Leader of Comintern delegation to China in 1920Karl Kautsky, Second International theorist of economic determinist MarxismLi Dazhao, Beijing-based revolutionary Marxist leaderZhang Dongsun, Exponent of a non-revolutionary interpretation of MarxismOu Shengbai, Guangzhou anarchist and former student of Chen DuxiuHenk Sneevliet, alias Maring, Dutch Communist and Comintern leader in China beginning in 1921Zhang Guotao, emerged from founding congress as important Communist leaderLi Hanjun, advocated study and propaganda as main party activities at first congressLiu Renjing, one of the Beijing delegates to the first party congress
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Podcast Details

Created by
Matthew Rothwell
Podcast Status
Active
Started
May 29th, 2019
Latest Episode
Oct 15th, 2020
Release Period
Weekly
Episodes
43
Avg. Episode Length
27 minutes
Explicit
No
Order
Episodic

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