Talk grew of removing the Manchus from power. The revolutionary leader, Sun Yat Sen, emerged as a leader of a new revolutionary alliance. Their goal was to replace the Qing Dynasty with a republican form of government.
The Manchus managed some reforms in the early 20th century. They were too little and too late.
Russia and Japan went to war with each over their interests in Manchuria, China. Japan handily defeated Russia. As a result, Japan reclaimed and occupied the sea port city in Southern Liaoning Province, Port Arthur (modern day Dalian).
In 1908, both the Emperor Guangxu and the Empress Dowager died. The two-year old nephew of the Empress Dowager was chosen to be the next (and last) Emperor.